Outline the relationship between plate movement

Continental crust is typically made up of relatively less dense rock like granite. The oceanic crust is typically made up of more dense rock like basalt. Oceanic crust carries sediments that have been deposited on the oceanic floor. Some lithospheric plates have just oceanic crust.

Outline the relationship between plate movement

Plate tectonics has revolutionized virtually every discipline of the Earth sciences since the late s and early s. It has served as a unifying model or paradigm for explaining geologic phenomena that were formerly considered in unrelated fashion.

Plate tectonics describes seismic activity,… Principles of plate tectonics In essence, plate-tectonic theory is elegantly simple. While the interiors of the plates are presumed to remain essentially undeformed, plate boundaries are the sites of many of the principal processes that shape the terrestrial surface, including earthquakes, volcanismand orogeny that is, formation of mountain ranges.

For a deeper discussion of plate-driving mechanisms, see Plate-driving mechanisms and the role of the mantle. Depending on the material they travel through, the waves may either speed up, slow down, bend, or even stop if they cannot penetrate the material they encounter.

Outline the relationship between plate movement

Collectively, these studies show that Earth can be internally divided into layers on the basis of either gradual or abrupt variations in chemical and physical properties. Chemically, Earth can be divided into three layers. A relatively thin crustwhich typically varies from a few kilometres to 40 km about 25 miles in thickness, sits on top of the mantle.

Beneath the mantle is the core, which extends to the centre of Earth, some 6, km nearly 4, miles below the surface. Outline the relationship between plate movement maintain that the core is made up primarily of metallic iron accompanied by smaller amounts of nickelcobaltand lighter elements, such as carbon and sulfur.

There are two types of crust, continental and oceanicwhich differ in their composition and thickness. The distribution of these crustal types broadly coincides with the division into continents and ocean basins, although continental shelveswhich are submerged, are underlain by continental crust.

The continents have a crust that is broadly granitic in composition and, with a density of about 2. Continental crust is typically 40 km 25 miles thick, while oceanic crust is much thinner, averaging about 6 km 4 miles in thickness. These crustal rocks both sit on top of the mantle, which is ultramafic in composition i.

The Moho is clearly defined by seismic studies, which detect an acceleration in seismic waves as they pass from the crust into the denser mantle. The boundary between the mantle and the core is also clearly defined by seismic studies, which suggest that the outer part of the core is a liquid.

The four main types of seismic waves are P waves, S waves, Love waves, and Rayleigh waves. The effect of the different densities of lithospheric rock can be seen in the different average elevations of continental and oceanic crust. The less-dense continental crust has greater buoyancy, causing it to float much higher in the mantle.

Its average elevation above sea level is metres 2, feetwhile the average depth of oceanic crust is 3, metres 12, feet. The lithosphere itself includes all the crust as well as the upper part of the mantle i. However, as temperatures increase with depth, the heat causes mantle rocks to lose their rigidity.

This process begins at about km 60 miles below the surface. This change occurs within the mantle and defines the base of the lithosphere and the top of the asthenosphere. This upper portion of the mantle, which is known as the lithospheric mantle, has an average density of about 3.

The asthenosphere, which sits directly below the lithospheric mantle, is thought to be slightly denser at 3. In contrast, the rocks in the asthenosphere are weaker, because they are close to their melting temperatures.

As a result, seismic waves slow as they enter the asthenosphere. With increasing depth, however, the greater pressure from the weight of the rocks above causes the mantle to become gradually stronger, and seismic waves increase in velocity, a defining characteristic of the lower mantle.

The lower mantle is more or less solid, but the region is also very hot, and thus the rocks can flow very slowly a process known as creep.

Feb 05,  · Best Answer: They stay in the same place and the plate continues to move over the top resulting in the formation of island chains (Like hawai). The theory is hot magma plumes up through the plate, forms volcanoes. They are not at the plate edge like normal volcanoes and are somewhere inside the plate, ie away from the lausannecongress2018.com: Resolved. identify the relationship between the general composition of igneous rocks and plate boundary type. outline the main stages involved in the growth of the Australian continent over geological time as a result of plate tectonic Observation of the direction of plate movement over the hot spot can assist in predicting where new volcanos. Scientists now have a fairly good understanding of how the plates move and how such movements relate to earthquake activity. Most movement occurs along narrow zones between plates where the results of plate-tectonic forces are most evident.

During the late 20th and early 21st centuries, scientific understanding of the deep mantle was greatly enhanced by high-resolution seismological studies combined with numerical modeling and laboratory experiments that mimicked conditions near the core-mantle boundary.

At a depth of about 5, km 3, milesthe outer core transitions to the inner core. The polarity of the iron crystals of the OIC is oriented in a north-south direction, whereas that of the IIC is oriented east-west. Plate boundaries Lithospheric plates are much thicker than oceanic or continental crust.

Their boundaries do not usually coincide with those between oceans and continentsand their behaviour is only partly influenced by whether they carry oceans, continents, or both. The Pacific Plate, for example, is entirely oceanic, whereas the North American Plate is capped by continental crust in the west the North American continent and by oceanic crust in the east and extends under the Atlantic Ocean as far as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

A general discussion of plate tectonics. In a simplified example of plate motion shown in the figure, movement of plate A to the left relative to plates B and C results in several types of simultaneous interactions along the plate boundaries.

At the rear, plates A and B move apart, or diverge, resulting in extension and the formation of a divergent margin. At the front, plates A and B overlap, or converge, resulting in compression and the formation of a convergent margin.

Along the sides, the plates slide past one another, a process called shear. As these zones of shear link other plate boundaries to one another, they are called transform faults.Plate Tectonics, the Cause of Earthquakes The plates consist of an outer layer of the Earth, the lithosphere, which is cool enough to behave as a more or less rigid lausannecongress2018.comonally the hot asthenosphere of the Earth finds a weak place in the lithosphere to rise buoyantly as a plume, or hotspot.

The satellite image below shows the volcanic islands of the Galapagos hotspot. identify the relationship between the general composition of igneous rocks and plate boundary type.

outline the main stages involved in the growth of the Australian continent over geological time as a result of plate tectonic Observation of the direction of plate movement over the hot spot can assist in predicting where new volcanos. Subject: Plate Tectonic, Volcanoes and Earthquakes What is the relationship between volcanoes, earthquakes, and plate-tectonics?

Plate tectonics is the over-lying theory presently used by most Earth Scientists to describe motion within the outer-most layer of the solid Earth (also know as the lithosphere). Feb 05,  · Best Answer: They stay in the same place and the plate continues to move over the top resulting in the formation of island chains (Like hawai).

The theory is hot magma plumes up through the plate, forms volcanoes. They are not at the plate edge like normal volcanoes and are somewhere inside the plate, ie away from the lausannecongress2018.com: Resolved.

Plate Tectonics - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives Causes of plate movement Learn about the relationship between sea floor spreading and polar reversals detected on the ocean floor. identify the relationship between the general composition of igneous rocks and plate boundary type.

outline the main stages involved in the growth of the Australian continent over geological time as a result of plate tectonic Observation of the direction of plate movement over the hot spot can assist in predicting where new volcanos.

Plate Tectonics, the Cause of Earthquakes