Culture is all socially transmitted behavior, arts, architectures, languages, signs, symbols, ideas, beliefs, norms, traditions, rituals, etc. Culture is handed down from one generation to another. It gives people their way of seeing the world and interpreting life.
October 22nd, by Michael Gates To talk or write about culture one has to generalise about the cultural characteristics of the nationalities discussed.
The study of cultures is a social science, and — as Aristotle points out three times in the introduction to his Ethics — in the social sciences, accuracy is not the same as in the physical sciences. Pushed too far, any generalisation becomes absurd, but it can be a good starting-point from which to go deeper.
We also need to be careful to think descriptively, not evaluatively: The process we may do well to follow — as with other models and approaches to adapting behaviour — is to Make a hypothesis. Weigh it against any confirming and disconfirming evidence. Generalisations — or stereotypes — come from a mixture of facts, experience and history.
They can seem too simple at first. The key is to get inside them and analyse them in their full complexity. German directness may be perceived as rudeness by the Japanese, for instance.
Again, we sometimes avoid generalising because we believe it may upset others. But that makes the assumption we know what people judge as positive or negative qualities — for example, modesty tends to be a virtue in the Nordic countries, but may give a rather negative impression in cultures where self-assertion is seen as a positive quality.
Few would deny they have mental pictures of national behaviour, even if they avoid expressing them. A test is to describe a culture in diametrically-opposed terms to the common view. Finally, people sometimes object to generalisations because they question applying general characteristics to one individual.
But it can be even more dangerous to apply your experience of one individual to the whole nation — i. Anyone with experience of India will have felt the huge wave of optimism that hits you from the moment you arrive. It turned out that the person in question had only known one Indian, who happened to be a pessimist.
We have to come with an open mind, but prepared to suspend disbelief in order to benefit from the usefulness of non-judgemental cultural generalisations.
Encountering another culture and respecting rather than denying its differences from our own culture can be an enriching learning experience. Finally remember — as Schopenhauer pointed out — that one of the greatest intellectual challenges is to understand that a thing can be both true and untrue at the same time.4 Overcome Cross Cultural Communication in other places can be a barrier to communication in the workplace.
Stereotypes are assumptions people make about the traits of members of a group.
Cross-cultural may refer to. cross-cultural studies, a comparative tendency in various fields of cultural analysis; cross-cultural communication, a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate; any of various forms of interactivity between members of disparate cultural groups (see also cross-cultural communication, interculturalism, intercultural.
If we can make accurate stereotypes, then our cultural-level predictions about strangers’ behavior can also be accurate. Stereotypes, in and of themselves, do not lead to miscommunication and /or communication breakdown. 52 Activities for Improving Cross-Cultural Communication [Donna M.
Stringer, Patricia A. Cassiday] on lausannecongress2018.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Communication styles and patterns differ vastly among people from different cultures. Every culture has a communication style norm and when that style mixes with another.
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CULTURAL COMMUNICATION GUIDE 3RD EDITION COOK ROSS, INC’S INDEX Introduction. Stereotypes and Prejudices. Stereotyping is the process of creating a picture of a whole culture, overgeneralizing all people belonging to the same culture as having similar characteristics and categorizing people accordingly.