Critical Essays on Human Factors in Aviation. Crew Resource Management CRM training was first introduced in the late s as a means to combating an increased number of accidents in which poor teamwork in the cockpit was a significant contributing factor. Since then, CRM training has expanded beyond the cockpit, for example, to cabin crews, maintenance crews, health care teams, nuclear power teams, and offshore oil teams. Not only has CRM expanded across communities, it has also drawn from a host of theories from multiple disciplines and evolved through a number of generations.
We can become fatigued following long periods of work and also following periods of hard work. When fatigue becomes a chronic condition it may require medical attention but, workers should never self-medicate! As we become more fatigued our ability to concentrate, remember and make decisions reduces.
Therefore, we are more easily distracted and we lose situational awareness.
|Critical Essays, 1st Edition||Subjects Description Crew Resource Management CRM training was first introduced in the late s as a means to combating an increased number of accidents in which poor teamwork in the cockpit was a significant contributing factor. Since then, CRM training has expanded beyond the cockpit, for example, to cabin crews, maintenance crews, health care teams, nuclear power teams, and offshore oil teams.|
|Human Factors In Aviation Essay Sample||Human Human Factors Engineering Institution:|
It is a human problem that we tend to underestimate our level of fatigue and overestimate our ability to cope with it. Therefore, it is important that workers are aware of the signs and symptoms of fatigue — in themselves and others. Fatigue self-management involves a three-sided programme of regular sleephealthy diet including reduced use of alcohol and other drugsand exercise.
Lack of resources If all the parts are not available to complete a maintenance task, then there may be pressure on a technician to complete the task using old, or inappropriate parts.
Regardless of the task, resources also include personnel, time, data, tools, skill, experience and knowledge etc.
It may also be the case that the resources available, including support, are of a low quality or inadequate for the task. When the proper resources are available, and to hand, there is a greater chance that we will complete a task more effectively, correctly and efficiently.
Therefore, forward planning to acquire, store and locate resources is essential. It will also be necessary to properly maintain the resources that are available; this includes the humans in the organisation as well.
Pressure Pressure is to be expected when working in a dynamic environment. However, when the pressure to meet a deadline interferes with our ability to complete tasks correctly, then it has become too much. It is the old argument of Quantity versus Quality; and in aviation we should never knowingly reduce the quality of our work.
Pressure can be created by lack of resources, especially time; and also from our own inability to cope with a situation. We may come under direct, or indirect, pressure from the Company, from clients and even our colleagues.
However, one of the most common sources of pressure is ourselves. These poor judgements are often the result of making assumptions about what is expected of us. These skills are essential, and when deadlines are critical, then extra resources and help should always be obtained to ensure the task is completed to the required level of quality.
Lack of assertiveness Being both unable to express our concerns and not allowing other to express their concerns creates ineffective communications and damages teamwork.
Unassertive team members can be forced to go with a majority decision, even when they believe it is wrong and dangerous to do so.
Assertiveness is a communication and behavioural style that allows us to express feelings, opinions, concerns, beliefs and needs in a positive and productive manner.
It is about communicating directly, but honestly and appropriately; giving respect to the opinions and needs of others, but not compromising our own standards. Assertiveness techniques can be learnt and they focus on keeping calm, being rational, using specific examples rather than generalisations, and inviting feedback.
Most importantly, any criticisms should be directed at actions and their consequences rather than people and their personalities; this allows others to maintain their dignity, and a productive conclusion to be reached. Stress There are many types of stress.
Typically in the aviation environment there are two distinct types - acute and chronic. Acute stress arises from real-time demands placed on our senses, mental processing and physical body; such as dealing with an emergency, or working under time pressure with inadequate resources.
When we suffer stress from these persistent and long-term life events, it can mean our threshold of reaction to demands and pressure at work can be lowered. Thus at work, we may overreact inappropriately, too often and too easily.
The situation of stress arising from lack of stimulation at work has been covered above under Complacency above. Some early visible signs of stress include changes in personality and moodserrors of judgementlack of concentration and poor memory.
Individuals may notice difficulty in sleeping and an increase in fatigueas well as digestive problems. Longer-term signs of stress include susceptibility to infections, increased use of stimulants and self-medicationabsence from work, illness and depression.
It is important to recognise the early signs of stress and to determine whether it is acute or chronic. Coping with daily demands at work can be achieved with simple breathing and relaxation techniques.
However, perhaps more effective is having channels of communication readily available through which to discuss the issue and help to rationalise perceptions.
It is entirely appropriate that some of these channels involve social interaction with peers. As with fatiguesleepdiet and exercise are all important factors in helping to reduce stress and build resilience to stressors. If the stress is chronic, then definite lifestyle changes will be required; this must be achieved with support from the Company.Simulations have been a fixture of aviation training for many years.
Advances in simulator technology now enable modern flight simulation to mimic very closely the look and feel of real world flight operations.
Critical Essays on Human Factors in Aviation: Publication Date: March 28, Pages: See More. Simulation in Aviation Training. Human factors involves gathering information about human abilities, limitations, and other characteristics and applying it to tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments to produce safe, comfortable, and effective human use .
Harris, D & Li, W-C (eds) , Decision Makingin Aviation: Critical Essays on Human Factors in lausannecongress2018.comal Essays in, Ashgate Publishing Ltd. Critical Essays Edited by Eduardo Salas, Eleana Edens, Katherine A.
Wilson Crew Resource Management (CRM) training was first introduced in the late s as a means to combating an increased number of accidents in which poor teamwork in the cockpit was a significant contributing factor. History indicates that human factors engineering concerns were normally addressed too late, contributing significantly to the well known “automation problem” in commercial aviation.
Human factors engineering provides the opportunity to; develop or improve all human interfaces with the system; optimize human / product performance during system operation, maintenance, and support; and make economical .
Human Factor in aviation building essay. Table of contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Constructing factors leading to the fault. 3. Human factors in the accident. 4. Perpetrators and minimization of the re-occurrence probability.